Cancer is not a new disease. It's been around since life on earth started. I found this Minireview very useful, and it can definitely be used as a source by following the works cited. The authors compiled several early examples of cancer, and they provided us some writings from ancient philosopher/doctors about the disease. The really frustrating part is that for some types of cancer we are not in a much different situation than that of those ancient doctors.
In the end of the article, there is also a nice timeline of cancer with "milestones".